VOL. 16 NO. 22-NOVEMBER 1, 2021

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Defining Sovereignty

Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution states that “Congress shall have the power to regulate Commerce with foreign nations and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes.”

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REFLECTIONS/Jonathan Gramling

Jonathan Gramling

I have to admit that my exposure to Indigenous people, culture and history was rather limited and filled with stereotypes growing up. There were those John Wayne western movies that filled the small screen every Saturday afternoon. I don’t think there was anything real about those movies and they were definitely a negative. I know too many grew up believing – and probably believe today – that all Indigenous people were Plains Indians who rode horseback and slaughtered buffalo when they weren’t busy harassing the “poor, innocent white settlers.”

With all of the massacres of Indigenous people that I have read about over the years, perhaps psychologically speaking, the qualities of many of the settlers were projected onto the Native people, using these depictions to wreak even more brutality on Native people as their land and resources were taken from the – treaty or no treaty.



Editorial Staff

Publisher & Editor
Jonathan Gramling

Contributing Writers
Sujhey Beisser, Fabu, Nichelle Nichols, Donna Parker, Heidi Pascual, Angela Puerta, Jamala Rogers, Kwame Salter, Angelica Euseary, Wayne Strong, Kipp Thomas, and Nia Trammell

Heidi M. Pascual